In previous articles, we presented the most important types of insects, pests and fungal diseases that affect greenhouses. And treat it when infected.
First: Pest control measures inside greenhouses
In order to be able to control greenhouse pests, you need to follow a set of procedures distributed over the different stages of cultivation and production, as follows:
Before the planting season begins
- Try to provide a full month in which the greenhouse is completely free of any weeds or plantings, before starting a new cycle.
- Work on disinfecting all roofs of the greenhouse, and irrigation networks.
- Dispose of used or previously sterilized farming environments.
In the seedling production stage
- Be sure to buy plant seeds from trusted sources.
- Soak the seeds of different vegetables (such as cucumbers and tomatoes) in a solution containing 20% commercial Clorax for 40 minutes, before drying them.
- Separating seedlings from different sources, so that they are not exposed to contamination.
- Wash the used agricultural tools, before you start planting a new set of seedlings.
- Use a new, steam-sterilized planting environment when producing new seedlings.
- Work on planting disease-resistant varieties of plants.
- Specialization of greenhouses for seedling production separate from greenhouses for crop production.
When the crop is produced
- Prepare a daily record that includes all agricultural service operations that have been performed, the dates of the different stages of growth, and the maximum and minimum temperatures.
- Ensure that carbonates, and other elements that can affect the required pH, are not present in the irrigation water.
- Measuring the pH of the irrigation water before adding fertilizers; This is to ensure that it is able to dissolve the fertilizer.
Second: Pest control measures
- Place nets over all openings; Including openings for cooling systems, to prevent insects from entering the greenhouse.
- Using yellow sticky cards to record the numbers of insects inside greenhouses, and update these cards as necessary.
- Release the natural enemies inside the protected house, in case the first signs of being infected with any kind of insects appear.
- Restrict the use of insecticides to pests that have no natural enemies.
Third: Measures to combat fungal diseases
- Reduce plant density, allowing more aeration for plants.
- Attempting to reduce the relative humidity so as not to cause the emergence and spread of these diseases.
- Dispose of all the leaves below the fruit clusters, as well as make sure to cut the leaves from the place of their natural separation when they are old.
- Remove all leaves and fruits infected with any fungal diseases outside the greenhouse.
- People working are not allowed to smoke inside the greenhouse, with the need to wash hands and used agricultural tools before entering the greenhouse.
- Avoid dealing with the disease by using any kind of pesticide before its symptoms appear.
- After harvesting the crop; All agricultural tools and equipment must be washed with a strong stream of water, plowed the soil and disposed of plant residues inside, in addition to exposing them to the sun for a period of at least two weeks.
In addition to the previous methods, there are a set of general procedures and means that can be applied inside greenhouses, in order to limit the spread of pests and diseases in them, including identifying the pest and its life stages, examining plants individually, as well as using the biological control method; By using living organisms whose presence contributes to reducing the presence of harmful pests.